This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Frankfurt-School, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Frankfurt School and Critical Theory. Marcuse took this framework and applied it to consumer goods and the new consumer lifestyle that had just become the norm in Western countries in the mid-1900s. Further information available here. In 1923, Marxist scholar Carl Grünberg founded the Institute, initially financed by another such scholar, Felix Weil. This phrase refers to the technological developments that allowed for the distribution of cultural products—music, film, and art—on a mass scale. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. 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Jürgen Habermas emerged as the most prominent member of the Frankfurt School in the postwar decades, however. Walter Benjamin was also associated with it during its peak in the mid-20th century. The website would not function properly without these cookies. It is most closely associated with the work of Max Horkheimer, Theodor W. Adorno, Erich Fromm, and Herbert Marcuse. In 1923, Felix decided to use his father’s money to found an institute specifically devoted to the study of German society in the light of a Marxist approach. Türkçe, Students of the Online Master of Leadership in Development Finance, Participants of the Certified Expert e-learning courses, From Bachelor of Science to Executive MBA, Innovative & inspiring. One of the core concerns of the scholars of the Frankfurt School, especially Horkheimer, Adorno, Benjamin, and Marcuse, was the rise of "mass culture." These cookies provide information on how a website is used (for example the average duration of page visit and how often it is viewed) and enable an ongoing optimisation of the website. They believed that technological advancements in communications and the reproduction of ideas enabled this form of rule. We also forward information to our partners for analyses, marketing and social media. русский, tr Much of this research was published in the institute’s journal, Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung (1932–41; “Journal for Social Research”). In 1923 the Institute was officially established, and funded by Felix Weil (1898-1975). Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Philosopher Herbert Marcuse in 1968 while he was a Professor of Philosophy at the University of California at San Diego. Fascism and authoritarianism were also prominent subjects of study. (Consider that when these scholars began crafting their critiques, radio and cinema were still new phenomena, and television didn't exist.) Most of them disavowed orthodox Marxism, though they remained deeply critical of capitalism. The members of the Frankfurt School tried to develop a theory of society that was based on Marxism and Hegelian philosophy but which also utilized the insights of psychoanalysis, sociology, existential philosophy, and other disciplines. Key works by members of the Frankfurt School include but are not limited to: Dr. Nicki Lisa Cole is a sociologist. Dr. Horkheimer left Germany in the early days of the Third Reich when his institute for Social Research fell under the Nazi ban. In 1953, well after the war, the Institute was re-established in Frankfurt. This approach, which became known as “critical theory,” yielded influential critiques of large corporations and monopolies, the role of technology, the industrialization of culture, and the decline of the individual within capitalist society. The scholars theorized that this experience made people intellectually inactive and politically passive, as they allowed mass-produced ideologies and values to wash over them and infiltrate their consciousness. Our partners may also amalgamate this information with further data which you have provided or other data which they have collected through the use of their services. The Frankfurt School scholars are known for their brand of culturally focused neo-Marxist theory—a rethinking of classical Marxism updated to their socio-historical period.
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